Jul 20, 2023

Guide to Wide-Angle, Normal, and Telephoto Lenses for Breathtaking Landscape Photography

By Martin Rak

Your Award-Winning Tutor

Choosing the right focal length for landscape photography depends on the desired perspective and the elements you wish to emphasize. Let's explore the three main categories: wide-angle, normal, and telephoto lenses.

Capturing Vast Landscapes: The Power of Wide-Angle Lenses in Photography

Landscape photography allows us to capture the breathtaking beauty of nature, from sweeping mountain ranges to serene seascapes. To truly capture the grandeur and scale of these vistas, photographers often turn to wide-angle lenses. With their expansive field of view, these lenses enable us to convey a sense of depth, perspective, and awe in our landscape images.

In this section, we will explore the merits of wide-angle lenses for landscape photography and showcase some examples from various brands, including both mirrorless and DSLR options.

Canon 17-40mm f/4L lens, © fir0002

Understanding Wide-Angle Lenses

Wide-angle lenses typically have a focal length of 35mm or shorter, allowing for a broader field of view than standard or telephoto lenses. They are characterized by their ability to capture a wide expanse of scenery in a single frame. The wider the focal length, the greater the angle of view and the more expansive the scene you can include in your composition.

Creating Depth and Perspective

Wide-angle lenses excel at creating a sense of depth and perspective in landscape photography. By emphasizing the foreground and stretching the background, these lenses can make elements in the frame appear larger and more prominent. This effect adds a three-dimensional quality to your images, drawing viewers into the scene and making them feel as though they are a part of it.

Bohemian Switzerland, Canon 5DS R + Canon EF 16-35mm f/4L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Including More of the Scene

One of the primary advantages of wide-angle lenses is their ability to include more of the scene within the frame. This is particularly useful when photographing expansive landscapes where you want to showcase the breadth of the environment. Wide-angle lenses allow you to capture vast skies, rolling hills, and sweeping horizons without sacrificing any significant elements of the composition.

Dolomites, Canon 5DS R + Canon EF 16-35mm f/4L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Distortion and Creative Possibilities

Wide-angle lenses often exhibit some degree of distortion, especially near the edges of the frame. While this can be seen as a disadvantage in certain situations, it can also be embraced as a creative tool. The distortion can add a unique and artistic touch to your images, lending them a sense of dynamism and exaggerating certain features of the landscape.

It is essential to experiment with compositions and perspectives to maximize the potential of this creative distortion.

Examples of Wide-Angle Lenses

Let's explore a few notable wide-angle lenses available from various brands, catering to both mirrorless and DSLR systems:

  1. Canon EF 16-35mm f/2.8L III USM (DSLR):
    • Widely regarded as one of the best wide-angle zoom lenses for Canon DSLRs.
    • Offers exceptional image quality, sharpness, and edge-to-edge clarity.
    • Built to withstand rugged environments, making it ideal for outdoor photography.
  2. Nikon AF-S Nikkor 14-24mm f/2.8G ED (DSLR):
    • Renowned for its outstanding optical performance and wide-angle capability.
    • Delivers impressive sharpness and minimal distortion, even at its widest aperture.
    • Designed with a rugged construction, it withstands challenging weather conditions.
  3. Sony FE 16-35mm f/2.8 GM (Mirrorless):
    • A high-performance wide-angle zoom lens for Sony full-frame mirrorless cameras.
    • Offers excellent corner-to-corner sharpness, even at its widest aperture.
    • Compact, lightweight design, making it perfect for photographers on the go.
  4. Fujifilm XF 10-24mm f/4 R OIS (Mirrorless):
    • A versatile wide-angle zoom lens designed for Fujifilm X-series mirrorless cameras.
    • Provides excellent image quality and sharpness throughout its focal range.
    • Features optical image stabilization, ensuring sharp handheld shots in low light.


Wide-angle lenses are indispensable tools for landscape photographers, allowing them to capture the vastness, depth, and beauty of natural landscapes.

By utilizing the expansive field of view, photographers can create images that transport viewers into the scene, evoking emotions and a sense of wonder. With a wide range of options available from various brands, both DSLR and mirrorless users can find wide-angle lenses that suit their specific needs and deliver exceptional results.

Tips for Shooting Landscapes with a Wide-Angle Lens

  1. Select the Right Focal Length: Experiment with different focal lengths within the wide-angle range to find the one that best suits your composition. Shorter focal lengths, such as 14mm or 16mm, will capture a wider field of view, while longer focal lengths like 24mm will provide a slightly narrower perspective.
  2. Find a Strong Foreground Element: Wide-angle lenses excel at emphasizing the foreground, so look for interesting elements to include in the front of your composition. Rocks, flowers, trees, or other objects can add depth and visual interest to your landscape images.
  3. Mind Your Composition: Pay attention to the placement of your main subject and the elements within the frame. Utilize the rule of thirds or leading lines to guide the viewer's eye through the image. Be mindful of the distortion near the edges of the frame and adjust your composition accordingly.
  4. Get Close to the Subject: To enhance the sense of depth and perspective, move closer to your foreground subject. This will make it appear larger and more prominent in the frame, creating a stronger visual impact.
  5. Capture Wide Skies: Wide-angle lenses are perfect for capturing expansive skies. Incorporate dramatic cloud formations, colorful sunsets, or starry nights to add a sense of scale and atmosphere to your landscape images.
  6. Use a Small Aperture: To ensure a large depth of field and keep both the foreground and background sharp, use a small aperture (higher f-stop number) like f/11 or f/16. However, be cautious of diffraction, which can slightly reduce overall sharpness at very small apertures.
  7. Consider the Golden Hour: Take advantage of the soft, warm light during the golden hour (shortly after sunrise or before sunset). The low angle of the sun can create long shadows and enhance the textures and contours of the landscape.
  8. Bracket for Exposure: In high-contrast scenes, such as landscapes with bright skies and dark shadows, consider bracketing your exposures. Capture multiple shots with different exposure settings to ensure a well-balanced image, and blend them together during post-processing.
  9. Pay Attention to Distortion: Be mindful of the distortion that wide-angle lenses can introduce, especially when photographing man-made structures. Keep an eye on the straight lines in your frame and make necessary adjustments to minimize distortion during post-processing.
  10. Experiment and Practice: Wide-angle lenses offer immense creative possibilities, so don't be afraid to experiment with different angles, compositions, and perspectives. Practice regularly to understand how your lens performs and to develop your unique style.
Saxon Switzerland, Canon 5DS R + Canon EF 11-24mm f/4L USM, © Martin Rak

By following these tips, you can make the most of your wide-angle lens and capture stunning landscape images that showcase the grandeur and beauty of the natural world.

Unveiling the Beauty of Simplicity: Exploring Normal Lenses for Photography

When it comes to photography, we often find ourselves reaching for wide-angle or telephoto lenses to capture landscapes or zoom in on distant subjects. However, there is a lens category that often goes overlooked but is equally important: normal lenses. Normal lenses provide a natural field of view similar to what the human eye perceives, making them versatile tools for a wide range of photography genres.

In this section, we will delve into the world of normal lenses, highlighting their benefits and showcasing some examples from various brands.

Understanding Normal Lenses

A normal lens is typically defined as having a focal length similar to the diagonal measurement of the cameras image sensor. For full-frame cameras, this is around 50mm, while for APS-C or crop sensor cameras, it is usually around 35mm. Normal lenses offer a field of view that closely resembles what our eyes naturally see, making them excellent for capturing scenes as we perceive them.

Versatility in Photography

Normal lenses are incredibly versatile due to their natural field of view. They are well-suited for a wide range of photography genres, including street photography, documentary photography, environmental portraiture, and everyday snapshots. Their ability to capture scenes with minimal distortion and a balanced perspective makes them a popular choice for many photographers.

Bohemian Switzerland, Canon 5DS R + Canon 50mm f/1.8 STM, © Martin Rak

Simplicity and Creativity

Normal lenses encourage photographers to focus on composition, storytelling, and the interplay of light and shadow, rather than relying on exaggerated perspectives or extreme focal lengths. With their straightforward and uncomplicated design, normal lenses promote a simpler approach to photography and encourage photographers to refine their vision and composition skills.

Jizera Mountains, Canon R5 + Canon RF 24-105 f/4L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Optimal Image Quality

Normal lenses are often designed with high-quality optics, allowing for excellent image sharpness, color accuracy, and minimal distortion. Due to their simple construction, they can often provide exceptional performance even at wider apertures. This makes normal lenses a reliable choice for photographers who prioritize image quality.

Examples of Normal Lenses

Let's explore some noteworthy normal lenses available from various brands, catering to both mirrorless and DSLR systems:

  1. Canon EF 50mm f/1.8 STM (DSLR):
    • A budget-friendly option that offers a wide aperture of f/1.8 for excellent low-light performance and background blur.
    • Compact and lightweight, making it perfect for everyday use and portability.
    • Delivers sharp images with good overall image quality.
  2. Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 35mm f/1.8G ED (DSLR):
    • A versatile prime lens that excels in low-light situations with its wide aperture of f/1.8.
    • Features a Silent Wave Motor (SWM) for fast and silent autofocus performance.
    • Renders images with sharpness, clarity, and beautiful bokeh.
  3. Sony FE 55mm f/1.8 ZA Carl Zeiss Sonnar T* (Mirrorless):
    • A premium normal lens designed for Sony full-frame mirrorless cameras.
    • Offers exceptional image sharpness, contrast, and color rendition.
    • Compact, lightweight, and well-suited for a variety of photographic applications.
  4. Fujifilm XF 35mm f/2 R WR (Mirrorless):
    • A weather-resistant normal lens designed for Fujifilm X-series mirrorless cameras.
    • Provides a robust build quality and durability for various shooting conditions.
    • Offers sharp images, fast autofocus, and a compact form factor.


Normal lenses may not possess the visual impact of wide-angle or telephoto lenses, but they offer a unique charm and versatility that shouldn't be overlooked.

With their natural field of view, simplicity, and excellent image quality, normal lenses are capable of capturing scenes as we see them and allow photographers to focus on the essence of composition and storytelling. Whether you're capturing everyday moments or engaging in documentary photography, a normal lens can be your trusted companion, helping you unveil the beauty of simplicity in your images.

Tips for Shooting Landscapes with Normal Lenses

  1. Capture the Essence: Normal lenses are great for capturing the essence of landscapes. Look for interesting elements that define the scene, such as leading lines, textures, or patterns, and use your normal lens to frame them in a way that represents the overall landscape.
  2. Seek Balanced Compositions: Pay attention to the balance of elements within your frame. Use the natural field of view of your normal lens to create compositions with a balanced distribution of foreground, midground, and background elements. This can help create a sense of harmony and depth in your landscape images.
  3. Utilize Foreground Interest: Incorporate compelling foreground elements to add depth and visual interest to your landscape compositions. Rocks, flowers, or other objects can serve as strong focal points and lead the viewer's eye into the scene, creating a more immersive experience.
  4. Experiment with Aperture: Normal lenses often have wide maximum apertures, allowing for creative control over depth of field. Experiment with different aperture settings to achieve the desired foreground-to-background sharpness. In landscape photography, smaller apertures (higher f-stop numbers) are often preferred to ensure a larger depth of field, keeping both foreground and background in focus.
  5. Use Leading Lines: Normal lenses are excellent for emphasizing leading lines in landscapes. Look for natural or man-made elements like roads, rivers, or fences that guide the viewer's gaze into the frame. These lines can add a sense of depth and lead to the focal point of your composition.
  6. Pay Attention to Light: Lighting plays a crucial role in landscape photography. Pay attention to the quality, direction, and intensity of light. Use your normal lens to capture the interplay between light and shadows, the warmth of golden hour, or the drama of stormy skies. Experiment with different lighting conditions to evoke different moods and atmospheres in your landscape images.
  7. Focus on Details: Normal lenses are not limited to capturing wide vistas; they are also great for capturing smaller details within a landscape. Look for interesting patterns, textures, or unique elements and zoom in to capture the intricate beauty of these details. This can add a layer of interest and complexity to your landscape compositions.
  8. Consider Foreground-to-Background Sharpness: With normal lenses, it's essential to ensure a good balance of sharpness from the foreground to the background. Pay attention to your focus point and use a smaller aperture to maintain a larger depth of field. This will help ensure that important elements throughout the frame are adequately sharp.
  9. Embrace Simplicity: Normal lenses encourage a more straightforward and minimalist approach to landscape photography. Embrace the simplicity and focus on capturing the essential elements that convey the beauty and character of the landscape. Avoid cluttered compositions and aim for a clear, uncluttered aesthetic.
  10. Explore Different Perspectives: Don't be afraid to experiment with different perspectives when using your normal lens for landscapes. Change your vantage point, get low or high, and explore unique angles to find fresh and compelling compositions. This can offer a unique perspective on familiar landscapes and add a creative touch to your images.
Dolomites, Canon 5DS R + Canon 50mm f/1.8 STM, © Martin Rak

By incorporating these tips into your landscape photography with a normal lens, you can capture stunning images that showcase the beauty, balance, and simplicity of the natural world. Enjoy the process of exploring landscapes through your normal lens and let your creativity guide you in capturing extraordinary moments in nature.

The Power of Distance: Unleashing the Potential of Telephoto Lenses in Landscape Photography

Canon 17-40mm f/4L lens, © fir0002

When we think of landscape photography, wide-angle lenses often come to mind, capturing sweeping vistas and expansive scenes.

However, telephoto lenses have a unique ability to compress distances, isolate subjects, and bring distant details closer. In this article, we will delve into the world of telephoto lenses for landscape photography, exploring their benefits and providing examples from various brands.

Embracing Telephoto Lenses in Landscapes

While wide-angle lenses excel at capturing vast scenes, telephoto lenses offer a different perspective. By magnifying distant elements, these lenses allow photographers to isolate specific details, compress perspectives, and create a sense of intimacy within a larger landscape.

Telephoto lenses offer a fresh approach to landscape photography, enabling you to capture unique compositions and tell captivating stories.

Compressing Perspectives

One of the distinctive characteristics of telephoto lenses is their ability to compress distances. This compression effect can be used creatively in landscape photography. By using a telephoto lens, you can bring distant objects, such as mountains, closer to foreground elements, creating visually engaging layers and emphasizing the scale of the scene.

South Moravia, Canon R5 + Canon RF 100-500 f/4.5-7.1L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Isolating Subjects

Telephoto lenses are ideal for isolating subjects within a landscape. They allow you to focus on specific elements such as lone trees, rock formations, or wildlife, highlighting their significance and creating impactful compositions. Use your telephoto lens to narrow in on these subjects, eliminating distractions and drawing attention to their beauty.

Pygmy Owl, Canon R5 + Canon RF 100-500 f/4.5-7.1L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Enhancing Depth and Bokeh

Telephoto lenses with wider apertures can create a shallow depth of field, allowing you to separate your subject from the background. This effect is particularly useful when capturing close-up shots of flowers, trees, or other elements within the landscape. Utilize a wide aperture to achieve a creamy bokeh, which adds a pleasing visual aesthetic to your images.

Overcoming Challenging Conditions

Telephoto lenses can be valuable in overcoming challenging shooting conditions. They allow you to capture details in distant landscapes when access is restricted or when adverse weather conditions make it difficult to approach the subject. This flexibility enables you to adapt to various scenarios and still capture stunning images.

Enhancing Sunrise and Sunset Photography

Telephoto lenses are not only for capturing distant subjects but also for amplifying the beauty of sunrise and sunset scenes. These lenses enable you to magnify the vibrant colors of the sky, capture the sun's rays piercing through fog, or isolate a small section of the landscape dramatically illuminated by the warm, golden light.

Dolomites, Canon 5DS R + Canon 70-300mm f/4-5.6L IS USM, © Martin Rak

Emphasizing Texture and Patterns

Telephoto lenses can reveal intricate details and patterns within landscapes that might be missed by the naked eye. Explore rock formations, textured surfaces, or repetitive patterns in nature, and use your telephoto lens to emphasize their unique qualities. This can add a sense of depth and visual interest to your images.

Tripod Stability

When using telephoto lenses, stability is crucial to avoid camera shake and ensure sharp images. Use a sturdy tripod to provide a stable platform for your camera. Additionally, consider using a remote shutter release or the camera's self-timer function to minimize any movement when capturing images.

Planning and Patience

Telephoto lenses often require careful planning and patience. Research your location, understand the best vantage points, and anticipate the movement of subjects within the landscape. Waiting for the perfect moment, such as the light hitting a particular feature or wildlife in action, can result in truly remarkable images.

Experiment and Refine Technique

Telephoto lenses offer endless creative possibilities. Experiment with different focal lengths, apertures, and compositions to find your unique style. Refine your technique by practicing and learning to anticipate the behaviors and movements of your subjects. Through experimentation and perseverance, you can unlock the full potential of telephoto lenses in landscape photography.

Examples of Telephoto Lenses

Let's explore some noteworthy telephoto lenses available from various brands, catering to both mirrorless and DSLR systems:

  1. Nikon AF-S NIKKOR 70-200mm f/2.8E FL ED VR (DSLR):
    • A versatile telephoto zoom lens with a wide aperture range.
    • Offers excellent image quality, sharpness, and impressive image stabilization.
    • Ideal for capturing distant landscapes, wildlife, and intimate details within a scene.
  2. Canon RF 100-500mm f/4.5-7.1L IS USM (Mirrorless):
    • A versatile telephoto zoom lens designed for Canon's RF mount.
    • Provides a long reach, allowing you to capture distant subjects with ease.
    • Offers excellent image stabilization and image quality throughout the zoom range.
  3. Sony FE 200-600mm f/5.6-6.3 G OSS (Mirrorless):
    • A super-telephoto zoom lens designed for Sony full-frame mirrorless cameras.
    • Delivers impressive reach and image quality with optical stabilization.
    • Perfect for capturing distant landscapes, wildlife, and nature photography.


Telephoto lenses open up new creative possibilities in landscape photography by allowing you to isolate subjects, compress perspectives, and capture intricate details from a distance.

Embrace the unique capabilities of telephoto lenses to create impactful compositions, emphasize patterns and textures, and capture stunning sunrise and sunset scenes. With careful planning, patience, and experimentation, you can harness the power of telephoto lenses to capture breathtaking and evocative landscape images that tell compelling stories.

South Moravia, Canon 5DS R + Canon EF 100-400 f/4.5-5.6L IS II USM, © Martin Rak

Tips for Shooting Landscapes with Telephoto Lenses

  1. Select the Right Focal Length: Telephoto lenses often come with a range of focal lengths. Experiment with different focal lengths to find the one that best suits your desired composition. Longer focal lengths, such as 200mm, 300mm or even 500mm, can compress distances and emphasize elements within the landscape.
  2. Explore Distant Perspectives: Telephoto lenses offer a unique opportunity to explore and capture landscapes from a distance. Instead of focusing solely on foreground elements, embrace the ability of telephoto lenses to bring distant landscapes closer. Look for captivating scenes or interesting features in the distance, such as mountain ranges, coastal cliffs, or expansive fields, and use your telephoto lens to capture their beauty in intricate detail.
  3. Pay Attention to Background Elements: While telephoto lenses excel at isolating subjects, it's important to consider the background as well. Ensure that the background elements complement your main subject and contribute to the overall composition. Look for complementary colors, interesting textures, or leading lines in the background.
  4. Use a Narrow Aperture for Depth of Field: To ensure that both your foreground and background remain in sharp focus, use a narrower aperture (higher f-stop number) when shooting with a telephoto lens. This will increase the depth of field and help maintain clarity throughout the image.
  5. Utilize Lens Compression: Take advantage of the unique perspective provided by telephoto lenses. Use lens compression to bring distant elements closer together, creating visually appealing layers and emphasizing the scale and depth of the landscape.
  6. Watch for Atmospheric Conditions: Telephoto lenses can help you capture atmospheric conditions and create dramatic effects in your landscape images. Pay attention to mist, fog, or low hanging clouds, as they can add an ethereal quality and enhance the mood of your photographs.
  7. Focus on Details and Textures: Telephoto lenses are great for capturing fine details and textures within a landscape. Zoom in on interesting patterns, textures, or intricate elements like tree bark or rock formations. This allows you to reveal the hidden beauty that may go unnoticed with wider lenses.
  8. Experiment with Panoramas: Telephoto lenses can be used to capture panoramic views by shooting a series of overlapping images and stitching them together in post-processing. This technique allows you to capture the vastness of a landscape while retaining the level of detail that telephoto lenses provide.
  9. Use a Tripod for Stability: Given the longer focal lengths used with telephoto lenses, camera shake becomes more pronounced. To ensure sharp images, use a sturdy tripod to stabilize your camera. This will eliminate any potential blur caused by hand movements and help you capture crisp details.
  10. Practice Patience: Landscape photography with telephoto lenses often requires patience. Be prepared to wait for the perfect lighting conditions, interesting cloud formations, or the ideal moment when the elements align. Patience is key to capturing that captivating shot that truly represents the essence of the landscape.
Dolomites, Canon 5DS R + Canon 70-300mm f/4-5.6L IS USM, © Martin Rak

By implementing these tips, you can maximize the potential of telephoto lenses in landscape photography. Experiment with different compositions, focal lengths, and techniques to capture stunning and impactful landscape images that highlight the beauty and details of the natural world.

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